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Found 20 results

  1. CONSTITUTIONAL, CIVIL, AND CRIMINAL DEFENSE. FOR FREE CONSULTATION, CONTACT [email protected] OR #03520174 Katashi-Sa Myoji has the knowledge YOU need to protect YOUR freedoms. With nine years of experience, graduating from Ivy league school Imperial University, Katashi has the legal know-how on how to uphold your American rights within the justice system of San Andreas. With Katashi at your side, you will get the lawyer you deserve, guaranteed. (( To roleplay emailing, please PM me on forums or discord at tony_the_booze#9917 ))
  2. Wade Empowerment Foundation Elevating Lives, Inspiring Change (( Click on the image )) A short political analysis, authored by the Wade Empowerment Foundation. Discover the essence of democracy in Los Santos! (( As realistically this is simply an academic thesis, likely found online on a web-library of similar essays, comments are disabled. Website requires a few seconds before it fully loads!))
  3. Dave Jackson 48-year-old from Bohan, Liberty City Back in the day, he started a political party, but the party failed in his mayoral campaign. Due to the accumulation of campaign debt and a conflict of interests, they failed to get votes. He came to Los Santos with his friend to start a new move called "Let's make it right."
  4. This thread will follow the character development of Andrew Rowlands, who started to take the masters in law in ULSA. Besides, this thread may have a continuity in another thread in the future.
  5. For a free consultation, please email me at [email protected] ((clicking the link PMs me)) REVIEWS/COMMENTS ENABLED: Username: Comment: Rating (if applicable) out of 5:
  6. "Bored of ticking boxes just to talk to an attorney who speaks to you like a programmed robot?" "Do you want a lawyer who will sit down and talk with you regarding your legal troubles and most importantly guide you through them? "Detained for something you did not participate in?" "Do you want a Lawyer on Retainer for your Friendly Organization just in case if they decide to bring you down?" 115-97-05
  7. NEWS • Local News Written by Yunisa DELGADO-FLORES • June 11th, 2022 - 6:05AM "Local citizens have the right to know", DA Terentiy Schwetz unveils Brady list for the public to see Earlier this week, Terentiy Schwetz announced that the Los Santos County District Attorney Office's Brady list, a list of law enforcement officers in Los Santos County who aren't viewed as credible, will be remain public. The Halls of Justice - Yunisa Delgado-Flores, June 11th 2022 The past few years saw the rise of movements and protests against the police system and its departments within the United States and across the world. Following George Floyd’s death in Minnesota, caused by police officer Derek Chauvin who knelt on his neck for 9 minutes while arresting him — as well as after many other high-profile cases such as Breonne Taylor’s death during a “no-knock warrant” in Kentucky, and the handling of Ahmaud Arbery’s murder by Georgia’s Glynn County Police Department —, many called into question how accountable the police are in their communities and the extent of the powers that they hold. One tool that prosecutors across the country have to help against the corrupt and abusive police officers within our communities are Brady Lists; a list of officers that have found to be unreliable and possibly malicious. Following the ruling of Brady vs. Maryland, a case in the Supreme court where the prosecutors within Maryland were found to have suppressed evidence, and the case where the Brady list gets its namesake from, prosecutors must turn over all evidence that may exonerate the defendant. This ruling, and subsequent rulings from cases such as Giglio and Jenks, also requires that prosecutors keep a track of law enforcement officers that may not be credible as witnesses. In a press release issued by the Los Santos County District Attorney’s Office, they announced the DA’s Brady list's construction and publication. Unlike many other Brady lists in San Andreas and the rest of the United States, the LSDA's Brady list remains open for public viewing. "I took office with the promise that the public would see more accountability from our law enforcement agencies and more control when law enforcement officers violate their oaths.” wrote Los Santos County’s District Attorney Terentiy Schwetz in their press release. “Brady lists exist in many other jurisdictions in San Andreas, and with this we now have the opportunity to promote honesty and integrity from all peace officers. This will have a net benefit for the citizens of Los Santos County, and it goes a long way to fulfilling the mandate provided to us by the federal government to ensure all of our agencies are operating at their best." The Los Santos County District Attorney’s office listed five reasons as to why a law enforcement officer may end up on their Brady list in their press release. If an officer has been found to have given a false statement, whether it is to their Internal Affairs department, to the district attorney’s office, or to Judicial or Executive entities, they shall be added to the DA’s Brady List. In Baltimore, Maryland, WBAL-TV reported that Detective Robert Hankard was found guilty for planting narcotics and weapons on people that he later arrested earlier this year. He is currently being sued by someone he formerly arrested. If an officer has been found to obstruct the proceedings of a judicial entity, they shall be added to the LSDA’s Brady List. The DA wrote in their press release that obstruction includes coercion, violence, or abusing their status and position as a law enforcement officer as well as causing any delays in court proceedings or investigations conducted by judicial entities. For example, if an officer were to delay giving a statement or purposefully prolong the process of supplying evidence in a case to delay proceedings, they will have been found to obstruct judicial entities. Likewise, if an officer uses their status to coerce a witness to testify or a defendant to plead guilty, or if they physically threaten those to do the same, then they also will have been found to have obstructed a judicial entity and will be added to the Brady List. If an officer has been found to have withheld evidence from the court, especially evidence that exonerates a defendant or is crucial to the conviction of a criminal, then they shall be added to the Brady list. The initial trial of Brady vs. Maryland dealt with how the state of Maryland withheld crucial evidence that may have exonerated Brady. Initially sentenced to death for murder, the Supreme Court ruled that Brady were to be given a new hearing due to how state prosecutors withheld a testimony given by his accomplice Donald Boblit that heard him confess to the murder. Brady’s sentence was lessened to life imprisonment, where he was later paroled. If an officer has founded to act on behalf of a gang, or is shown to be associated or a member of a gang, they shall be added to the Brady list. This also includes groups of officers that act to benefit themselves rather than the public. Finally, any law enforcement officer that has been found to be guilty of a violent misdemeanour charge, or is guilty of any felony, shall be put on the Brady list. When a law enforcement officer enters the DA's Brady list their statements, past or future, won’t be considered as valid evidence, reported the DA. Likewise any use of force by officers on the list will be investigated by the LSDA following the internal investigations from within their department. Officers on the list shall also no longer be able to submit arrest warrants to the DA’s office. Brady lists are often maintained by district attorney offices across the country, however many different agencies and organizations — both state and private — maintain their own. One non-profit, named aptly Brady List, keeps a public record of officers whose credibility is questionable across the United States. The record is kept public and allows Law Enforcement Organizations, Prosecutors, and Peace Officer Standards and Training Departments to contribute. Citizen Reporters, those who record misuse of power by law enforcement, also add to this non-profit’s list. Most state-ran Brady lists however, whether maintained by prosecutors, law enforcement agencies, or other governmental departments, remain burdensome to access for members of the public. Access to them, if possible, is usually behind a freedom of information request. The proper procedure to submit a FOI request often is unclear within many governmental agencies. The Los Santos County District Attorney however has made their list publicly available through this web-link. The Brady list is seen as a valuable tool by attorneys. Rachel Pearson, the managing partner of Pearson Hastings LLP, described the list to be “imperative in defending clients as it challenges the testimony given by officers.” Pearson also noted a possible negative of the Brady list, with how entries mark the end of the careers of law enforcement officers. “The Brady list is a step forward for accountability from law enforcement agencies, it is a publicly available list that displays officers that have been proven to have disreputable conduct. Once a peace officer is placed on the Brady list - this is effectively the end of their career, of which is of course, a negative to this list.”, wrote Pearson in response to their views of the Brady list. District Attorney Terentiy Schwetz stood by the decision to make the Brady list public for viewing. They wrote how one of the points that Schwetz wishes to focus on as the District Attorney is accountability. “The District Attorney's Office under my tutelage is focused on accountability and transparency. Local citizens have the right to know when their public servants have lied under oath, and this is important to every single criminal case. Even as a prosecutor, my concern is for the rights of everyone coming through the court system, and that means playing fair. “Nobody should lie to secure a conviction, nobody should withhold evidence, and definitely we shouldn't have people convicted of crimes who can arrest other people - that's just hypocritical.” The Los Santos Daily News reached out for an interview with the Los Santos Police Protection League through emailing presidential candidate for the union officer John Grillo to see if the union had a statement. While a full interview as of yet hasn’t been scheduled, he wrote that “The Los Santos Police Protective League is devoted to protecting the rights, job security, labor laws, and all around well-being of its officers.” When asked whether or not other agencies within Los Santos County, including the Los Santos Police Department, the Los Santos County Sheriff’s Department, the State Fire Marshal’s and the San Andreas Park Rangers, will contribute to the Brady list, District Attorney Terenity Shwetz wrote back that “All law enforcement entities in the state of San Andreas are expected to cooperate with the Brady List. “If they don't provide the names, we will find them ourselves through public records, although we hope that the agencies will naturally cooperate with us since we are partners.” The Los Santos Daily News reached out for a comment to the Los Santos Police Department and the Los Santos County Sheriff’s Department regarding their cooperation with the DA’s public Brady list, as well as any internal punishments seen to officers or deputies that have found to have violated the five offences listed by the DA’s office. Sheriff Joseph E. Cline wrote back to the Daily News. In response to a question regarding the LSSD’s cooperation with the DA’s Brady list, they wrote that “The Department works very closely with the Los Santos County District Attorney's Office in cracking down on corruption and has numerous times in the past assisted the office in conjunctly working on corruption cases. The Department strives for fostering relations with the District Attorney's Office and will ensure that any department member who engages in acts listed under the Brady Disclosure conditions shall be put on the list.” When asked about what internal punishments are issued to those who violate any of the acts listed in the DA’s press release, they noted how their “strives to instill compliance into employees and its system on the application of internal punishment is weighed by a system that measures both mitigating and aggravating factors of an incident. “A department member being found to have been guilty of any of the listed actions for the Brady List shall be subject to disciplinary action from an internal suspension w/o pay to a dismissal from employment. These circumstances vary and each situation shall be evaluated by the Internal Affairs Bureau and the respective Executive Office to ensure compliance with both the law & internal policy.” The same questions were sent to the Los Santos Police Department’s Chief of Staff Jacqueline Coburn, as directed by the LSPD’s Point of Contacts list available on their webpage, on June the 8th at approximately 11PM. As of this articles publishing date, they have not responded. As it stands, there are two entries in the Brady list. The District Attorney’s office stated that they will not be looking at previous infractions committed by law enforcement officers. Comments are enabled: Username: Comment:
  8. James Crawford was born in Los Santos on September 28, 1995, to Calum and Nataly Crawford. James grew up in Los Santos county in a poor household. His parents struggled with day-to-day expenses, trying to give James a good life. Calum, unable to cope with all the stress he was under, found comfort in whiskey, night after night coming home drunk. It wasn't long enough before some big fights broke inside the household between Nataly and Calum. James used to watch his mother get beat up by his father regularly. That went on for years, even when James was in his early teen years. During his teen years, James tried to protect his mother from Calum. As a result, James regularly ended up bruised to the corner of the kitchen crying.One night was a turning point for this family when James got admitted into the hospital with a broken ribcage. Nataly then decided to leave Calum and report these incidents to the police. Calum was found guilty and arrested by the Los Santos Sheriff's Department. Nataly filed for divorce and claimed custody of James, which she won. Afterward, Nataly took her son and moved into Los Santos in a two-bedroom apartment near Vespucci for the rest of James's high school years. After James's graduation, he decided to enlist and join the Marines Corps. James believed he could make a difference in the world. Nataly, scared for James, was against this decision. Young James had a falling out with his mother because James couldn't explain how he wanted to be a better man than his father and do something meaningful. In October 2012, James signed himself up in the Marine Corp and moved to San Diego to attend the boot camp center. He underwent thirteen weeks of training at boot camp and then moved to Carolina for the School of Infantry and did nine more weeks of Infantry Training Battalion before going to his unit. James spent the next nine years working for US Army and climbing the rank ladders. In March 2021, Calum confronted Natally after searching for her for a few years. It wasn't long into the meeting until Calum lost control and attacked Nataly. She got rushed to the Pillbox Hospital with spinal injuries and a disfigured face. Soon after the news reached James. Then decided to wait out the end of his contract and retire from the Corps. James's priority was to cater his mother back to good health.
  9. We are a leading law firm based in Los Santos, with offices across San Andreas. At Devine Pearson LLP, we pride ourselves on providing our clients with the highest standards of care and service. Our independent, expert lawyers offer unparalleled levels of law expertise in dealing with the highest-profile cases and dispute resolutions. What do we offer? Clients come to us because they have complex and challenging legal problems and they trust us to provide support in all areas of their business or private life. Our straight-talking lawyers, many of whom are leaders in their field, provide clients with strong, discrete advice as they create innovative robust solutions. How can we help? Please contact us and we will connect you with the right lawyer. Rosie Devine Managing Partner Rachel Pearson Senior Partner
  10. Short description: Create an agency that handles all things related to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Detailed description: The ATF would locate brewers or brew sites and stake them out to see if they are selling their brew without a brewing license. ATF agents would do the investigation work and only execute a sting operation with the help of local law enforcement only when they've uncovered enough evidence of an illegal operation. Most raids would have to be approved by a judge after the ATF or ATF Agent has provided enough evidence. Operations could range from a brew kit in the woods to a full-blown brewing operation in a barn. ATF would also locate the cache of illegal firearms through undercover sting operations to turning confidential informants. The ATF agent can execute undercover operations to arrest a low-level arms peddler and press them for more information to get them to turn on their suppliers for reducing sentences and fines. Use the CI (confidential informant) to go undercover to gather more evidence until the entire organization is taken down piece by piece. Commands to add: /knockATF /Placewire /Panicbutton Items to add: ATF vest, or coat, or something agency-related. A wire you can place on a person will transmit conversations in the proximity of the person wearing it remotely. The panic button option is used for who ever is wearing the undercover wire to use in case if they're in trouble and want law enforcement to intervene. How would your suggestion improve the server? The ATF will add more balance to some of the crime that goes on in the server. An ATF agency will bring a new host of RP opportunities to law enforcement and criminals alike. An agency like this will start to shape more of the judicial process and law enforcement roles. Having another task force capable of doing joint operations with other agencies will create more dynamic situations only possible with such a specific focus on criminal activates. ATF will be a rich opportunity to be on both sides of a stakeout, investigation, integrations, manhunts, informants, undercover agents, sting operations, and more. Additional information: If we can keep it ATF, that would be great since it would be an agency, especially for these three things that way, it slims other agencies' focus and doesn't overstep jurisdictions/roles.
  11. The Courts and You An Introduction to Criminal Justice and Law on GTA World Have you ever wondered how criminal justice actually works on GTA World? It's a bit more complicated than straight-forward cops n' robbers. Ever wondered how you can integrate this kind of roleplay into your gangster character without being a "street lawyer"? Look no further - this guide should set you on the right path. The Principal Actors There are a few actors in the criminal justice system - the main people who have roles to play in the system. These are the people with the power in this system, and they all keep each other in balance. These actors keep each other in check through a system of intricate limitations of each other's powers. The Accused This is you. Police Officers The Police are usually your character's first contact with the Criminal Justice system. They are the ones who you interact with and who enforce the law on a day to day basis. There are certain elements of proof that a Peace Officer must fulfill. Peace Officers are empowered by the state to enforce the law, but there are a lot of rules that go along with conducting an arrest. If any of these rules, laws, or procedures are allegedly broken - that is where the courts come in. Internal Affairs The Police also employ Internal Affairs (Infernal Repairs) to keep their own department in check. Investigators are employed by the department to enforce internal policies and to conduct internal investigations of misconduct. Internal Affairs is there to respond to allegations of professional misconduct and criminality within the department as the first line of defense, however, its primary purpose is to analyze and respond to risk factors within the department. Internal Affairs often works closely with department legal affairs and city attorneys in order to reduce potential sources of risk and to ensure the department, as an entity, cannot be held liable in the event of misconduct. The Superior Court The Courts serve a role in the Criminal Justice system as a regulatory entity, separate from any legal entity. The Courts are not on anybody's side - either the police or the accused. The first level of the courts is the Superior Court of San Andreas, overseen by judges and justices of the judiciary. The Superior Court, in the Criminal Justice System, serves as a remedy for any person who is accused of a crime. If you are accused, you have the right to appeal your charges through the courts directly, in the form of a Probable Cause Hearing and later a Criminal Trial. I've been Arrested, now what? So, you've been arrested by a Peace Officer, who has accused you of a crime. After they have thrown you in jail or prison, there are two routes you can go on (you can do both) in order to seek out a solution to your arrest if you have been wrongly arrested or if your rights have been violated. You can seek out a remedy through Internal Affairs or the courts. This is the part where you should get a lawyer if your character would not know how to answer these questions. This is how you can get involved with Criminal Justice without being a "street lawyer" - get yourself a public defender and they'll handle a lot of this. Ask yourself these questions... Have your rights been violated? Example: Did the police wrongly search you, your property, or your vehicle without reasonable suspicion or probable cause? Was there misconduct present during the arrest? Example: Did the police wrongly beat you, tase you when you were not resisting, shoot you whilst you were unarmed, etc.? Have the charges been falsely applied? Example: Did the police arrest you for Battery when it should have been assault? Are you completely innocent of certain charges? (Could be all charges, or just a few...) Example: Did the police arrest you for Possession of a Firearm when you didn't even have a firearm? If any of the above are true, then you can go to either Internal Affairs or the courts (or both). What is Evidence, though? What counts and what doesn't count as evidence? There are different levels of evidence in law, and they are all used for different things. These standards are the ones employed in the United States, and the ones which the courts follow. There are a lot more standards in United States Law, but these are the important ones to the courts in GTAW. Some Evidence This standard of proof is established in Superintendent v. Hill (1985) and applies mostly to Correctional Facilities. Per Superintendent v. Hill, a prisoner's privileges and abilities within a correctional facility can be revoked or reduced in response to violations of correctional facility procedures, policies, or correctional rehabilitation codes. The case refers specifically to a person's access to "good conduct" privileges, and establishes that some evidence needs to be present to justify the action by correctional officials. Essentially, what this means is that DOC officials can't just lock a person up in solitary confinement for no reason. Burden of Proof Reasonable Suspicion Reasonable Suspicion is a standard which was established long before Terry v. Ohio, but which was given more clarification by the landmark case. Reasonable Suspicion is a standard which is applied mostly to Peace Officers as they are involved with detaining a person. In order to detain a person, there needs to be a degree of evidence to which a reasonable person would believe a crime is about to be committed, is currently being committed, or has just recently been committed by a person. When reasonable suspicion is present, then a Peace Officer can detain a person temporarily. While no standard is currently set in stone for the amount of time a person can be detained on GTAW, this is subject to a reasonable standard as well - a detainment must be subjective and narrow in scope. The legal standard, in real life, has held that a Terry stop can last up to about an hour, sometimes more and most times less, depending on the reason for the stop. The Supreme Court, in Terry v. Ohio (1968), stated that reasonable suspicion requires "specific, articulable, and individualized suspicion that crime is afoot". This degree of proof goes beyond a gut feeling by a Peace Officer - it requires that some sort of evidence be present. This degree of proof was further clarified in DeBerry v. United States (1996) that an anonymous tip to a police emergency line is not enough to establish reasonable suspicion - some other sort of evidence must be present to justify a detainment against a person's will. Contrary to the decision rendered in DeBerry, Navarette v. California established that reasonable suspicion may be established given a specific and credible tip to a police tip line. The interpretation of credibility is often up to the court to decide. Reasonable Suspicion is used in order to justify a detainment of a person or a Terry frisk (a pat-down of the outer part of the clothing for officer safety purposes). Stop and Frisk is unlawful under current interpretations of the 4th Amendment, as published in federal court decision Floyd, et al. v. City of New York, et al. Summary: Police cannot detain you against your will without establishing Reasonable Suspicion. They must inform you of the crime you are suspected of being involved with. Police cannot randomly stop you. A 911 Call does not always establish Reasonable Suspicion. (Navarette v. California, DeBerry v. United States) Reasonable Suspicion, if present, allows police to conduct a Terry frisk or an informational detainment. Probable Cause Probable Cause is the next level of evidence often encountered in the Criminal Justice system. The standard is fairly well defined in the current codex of laws in the United States, and applies solely to Peace Officers establishing enough evidence to justify an arrest. This is the standard required in order to temporarily deprive a person of their freedom through an arrest, and the standard required in order to bring a person to criminal proceedings under certain charges. In real life, a Grand Jury determines whether probable cause exists to justify an arrest - however, here on GTAW, a Police Officer determines if there is enough to arrest you and then a judge can make a final decision if you make an appeal. Probable Cause is also the level of evidence required for a Police Officer to search your immediately-present property during an arrest situation. If you are arrested (not just given a traffic ticket) for a traffic offense, for example, then a Police Officer would have established Probable Cause for Arrest, and therefore can search any property involved with the incident. That means they can conduct a full search (pockets, backpacks, etc.). They cannot conduct a full search without at least probable cause established. In the above example, during an arrest in a traffic situation, they could search your vehicle as well - but, naturally, they cannot search your house. If you are arrested in a domestic violence situation in your house, then they could search your house but not your car -- they can search anything which is reasonable to believe would have been involved with (or contain supporting evidence for) the reason they are conducting the arrest. This standard is also used to establish just cause for a Search Warrant, Warrant for Surveillance, or an Arrest Warrant. When Police Officers make an application for these types of warrants, the judge will often scrutinize and require that certain affidavits or articles of evidence be submitted to the court to justify the issuance of the warrant. This ties into a judge's professional responsibility to uphold the rights of the citizen as well as to support law enforcement. In order to conduct an arrest, Probable Cause for Arrest is needed. In order for a person to be convicted of an offense, there must be reason to believe beyond a reasonable doubt that the person is guilty. Summary: Police cannot arrest you without establishing Probable Cause for Arrest. Police cannot search things outside the scope of an arrest if they have Probable Cause for Arrest. Police cannot get a warrant without Probable Cause for Arrest. Preponderance of the Evidence Preponderance of the Evidence is a standard of evidence often applied in civil cases - it is not a high enough standard to convict a person of a crime, but it is a high enough standard to be used in administrative proceedings and civil trials. In the Criminal Justice system, it is the standard most often applied by Internal Affairs. Preponderance of the Evidence is a grey area which refers to a balance of the evidence. Generally speaking, this is thought of as the "51% rule". Essentially it means that evidence, in order to establish a preponderance, must show that a certain event is more likely than not to have occurred in the way the claimant has told it. Internal Affairs often uses this standard to determine whether a Peace Officer is guilty of misconduct. If they investigate and it's more likely that the officer did something wrong than that they didn't do something wrong, then they will often uphold the claim and take action. Peace Officers may even have room to sue or appeal to a Board of Rights for reprieve if action is taken against them without a Preponderance of Evidence being established by Internal Affairs. Beyond Reasonable Doubt Beyond Reasonable Doubt is the end-all be-all of the Criminal Justice System and it's the most simple of them all. If there is enough evidence that a reasonable person would believe the person has committed a crime beyond a reasonable doubt, then a person's freedom can be taken away from them for a long term of time (their prison sentence). But, this brings forth the question - what is a reasonable doubt? This is where judges come in for a full criminal trial. A reasonable doubt is any sort of doubt which a reasonable person would have, given all of the evidence before them. In real life, a jury panel is presented both sides of the case and finally retreats into a jury chamber to discuss (deliberate) the merits of each side and how the evidence applies to each side. The jury finally comes down to a vote to determine if there is evidence beyond a reasonable doubt to suggest guilt. What is Reasonable? Reasonable is a word in law which is used very loosely, but it actually has a very specific definition which is applied by the courts. There are a few definitions of Reasonable, based on the situation and the people involved. Each of these standards refer to a hypothetical, theoretical person who meets a certain categorical definition. Reasonable Person Standard A reasonable person is a person who is capable of exercising average care, skill, and judgment which can be expected of an average and capable adult. Reasonable Professional Standard A reasonable professional is a reasonable person who possesses a professional skill (lawyer, Police Officer, judge, medical professional, etc.). This standard is applied in cases of professional misconduct. Reasonable Child Standard A reasonable child is a reasonable person of minor age - the reasonable person standard is adjusted to meet the average care, skill, and judgment which can be expected of a child. Out of Character Evidence Out of Character Evidence is what powers the whole system. There are certain types of in-character evidence, such as Police Dashcam/Bodycam, videos, recordings, etc. which must be backed up by screenshots, Shadowplay, Plays.TV output, etc. Without out of character evidence, the validity of these sorts of evidence can fall into question by a judge or by Internal Affairs. This also extends to proving that certain roleplay, such as starting a recording, took place. Audio Recordings You must show that you roleplayed both obtaining and configuring an audio device like a wire, mole, phone etc. You must show that you roleplayed activating the device, in the case of using a phone. Video Recordings You must show that you roleplayed starting the video recording, usually with an animation or emote to show where the camera is being aimed. Additionally, OOC evidence can be used to clarify what in-character evidence would show, even if it is not your evidence. You can submit screenshots, videos, etc. in order to show. The general idea is that we want as many perspectives as possible so that we can determine what would, and what would not be shown in a certain piece of in-character evidence. What are the steps in all of this? The official documentation can get confusing at times. 1. The Arrest So, once you've been arrested the Peace Officers are going to file paperwork and evidence within their department. This usually consists of an Arrest Report. The Arrest Report is going to have a few elements attached to it: The names of the officer(s) involved. The date, time, and location of the incidents. A detailed description of what happened leading up to the arrest. The charges which are filed against you. Attachments of the evidence which supports all of this. The arrest report is the primary document which is used in the probable cause hearing, if you decide to proceed. At the time of the arrest, your character is assumed guilty until an appeal is filed. If your character does not file an appeal, then your character will have a criminal record for the rest of their life - however, if they do file a Criminal Appeal then they can enter a plea if they choose. At this point, you can choose to enter a Criminal Appeal... or go to Internal Affairs. 2. Probable Cause Hearing The Probable Cause Hearing is the first step of appeal. If you are arrested for anything, you can file a Probable Cause Hearing immediately and a judge will look over it as soon as possible. The judge will not be looking for any sort of merit in your case, nor will they hear any full arguments - they are looking for one single thing, Probable Cause. When you file a Criminal Appeal, you are essentially saying to the court that the arresting officer did not have probable cause for one or more charges filed. The judge will look into the arrest report filed and any evidence attached to it, then determine if the arresting officer has established Probable Cause for Arrest. This phase has one of two outcomes: Probable Cause Established. The accused (you) can now go forward to a full trial by filing a Notice of Further Appeal if they wish to make a full argument. Probable Cause Not Established. The arresting agency (LSPD) or the District Attorney can request a full trial by filing a Notice of Further Appeal if they wish to make a full argument. 3. Appeal Phase This is the phase where Internal Affairs will usually pick up a case and begin investigating to mitigate risk in a given situation. The Appeal refers to either going to Internal Affairs, or the courts, or both. Internal Affairs will look for evidence to establish a preponderance of evidence one way or another, then make a final determination in accordance with the findings of an investigation. The courts will look for evidence in arguments to establish evidence beyond a reasonable doubt. If Internal Affairs renders a decision, you can go to the courts to appeal that decision. 4. The Judgment The final verdict rendered by the courts can be appealed once, to the Supreme Court. Once the Supreme Court has rendered a decision, the decision is final and cannot usually be appealed - the court can reconsider certain precedents set in future hearings and overturn their own decisions, however all inferior courts are required to abide by the current judgments and precedents as set forth by the Supreme Court. But how can I do all of this without becoming a "street lawyer"? One big fear people have is: what happens if my character is a gangster and I don't want to roleplay them as being a hood lawyer? You're right - it's not realistic for your common street criminal to have extensive law knowledge. Not only is it unrealistic, but gangsters who have excessive lawyer-like tendencies are simply annoying on an out-of-character basis. There are certain things which it is realistic for your character to know about the Criminal Justice system, and other things which only a lawyer (or other law professional) might know. Things an Average Person might know: The average person is obviously going to know that Police Officers are the ones who arrest people, and that the courts exist. Your character might even know what the courts do, but not necessarily how to do those things. So, for example, your character might be aware that Criminal Appeals are a thing that can happen, but they might not know how to necessarily file the paperwork to make that happen. Knowing what something is, versus how to do it -- bridging that gap is what law school is for. The average person is obviously going to know what a lawyer is, and might know how to hire one. Things an Average Person probably doesn't know: The average person probably doesn't know how to file a Criminal Appeal, unless they look up some kind of guide online. This is a grey area, so you can roleplay realistically filing a Probable Cause Hearing -- but I would probably draw the line at the trial phase. It would probably be unrealistic for a person to defend themselves if they're a street hoodlum, unless they spent a really excessive amount of time in the law library studying up on laws. Once again, this is completely possible -- I have done it in real life and self-represented in real life, so I can say it's not as complicated as it seems but it's all up to how smart your character is.
  12. (( Work-in-progress; subject to change. References to “preorder” are references to forum PM. Send PM to @Midsummer Night's Dream using the preorder form when it becomes available in-characterly. )) PREORDER FORM “Forensic Évidence in the Criminal Court” SABIN: 191 07 210120 909 $20 995 Discover with this practice guide how to present and give forensic evidence. Trial advocates will find useful advice on laying the foundation and authenticating evidence; forensic specialists, analysts and experts will appreciate tips on how to reliably answer foundation questions, among others. Forensic Evidence in the Criminal Division is an essential reading for criminal law practitioners and expert witnesses who give forensic evidence in the criminal court. “Navigating the Traffic Court” SABIN: 191 07 140220 247 $11 995 Navigating the Traffic Court provides a clear picture of the law relevant to the traffic court -- understand how guilt is determined, and familiarize yourself administrative law principles applicable to the traffic court and traffic enforcement; ultimately, feel prepared next time you find yourself before a traffic court. “Legalease with ease!” SABIN: 191 07 020220 487 $9 777 Make sense of any legal document with this plainly-written dictionary. Legalease with ease! is a useful reading for anyone appearing in court without representation. Those with a law background may submit a request to have A to Z entries grouped into categories by subject-matter. “Bar Examination Preparation: The Complete Guide” SABIN: 191 07 120220 480 $47 779 Feel prepared and do wonders on the San Andreas Bar Examination with this comprehensive guide. Easy to grasp, thorough and covers all the topics on the examination. No need to take a course; learn in a non-threatening, non-judgmental and self-paced environment. “Writing for the San Andreas Bar Examination” SABIN: 191 07 170220 100 $14 000 (Description pending) “The San Andreas Penal Code Annotated” SABIN: 191 07 270220 900 $82 720 Find annotations with commentary on nearly every section of the San Andreas Penal Code (excludes traffic sections). Annotations break down elements of each crime; while commentaries consider issues likely to be contentious at trial. Find also hypothetical scenarios and illustrative cases. This title does not include defences to criminal liability. “The San Andreas Constitution Annotated” SABIN: 191 07 260220 515 $71 200 This annotation covers all the prominent clauses of the San Andreas Constitution. Enjoy rundowns on both substantive and procedural constitutional issues. The San Andrea Constitution Annotated is basic enough for general-interest readers, but also useful for practitioners. This title contains a glossary at the end of each chapter that may be of benefit to layperson readers. “Torts” SABIN: 191 07 290220 111 $96 000 (Description pending) “The Law of Contracts” SABIN: 191 07 010620 224 $76 000 (Description pending) “Commerce and the Law” SABIN: 191 07 070620 818 $70 000 (Description pending) More to come . . . Please allow for three to five weeks for the fulfillment of any order. Some orders will require longer waiting periods. You will be informed by e-mail if this is the case. You will not be invoiced or charged until your order is prepared and ready to be delivered.
  13. PERSONAL BIOGRAPHY Name: Henri de Montesquieu Gender: Male Date of Birth: January 21, 1972 Born: Bordeaux, France City: Los Santos, San Andreas Political Party: Republican Party (GOP) Biography: Henri de Montesquieu (January 21, 1972) is a French jurist and politician, who had once served as the 15th Minister of Justice (Ministre de la Justice) for the French Government in 1997. His court opinions helped lay the basis for modern French parliamentary law and made the judiciary a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. Montesquieu was the longest-serving Minister of Justice in French legislative, judiciary and executive history, he dominated the department and office and played a significant role in the development of the French legal system. Most notably, he reinforced the principle that the judiciary are obligated to exercise judicial review, by disregarding purported laws if they violate the laws. Thus, Montesquieu cemented the position of the French judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government. Furthermore, he made very important decisions relating to conservatism, affecting the balance of power between the governors and the governed during his early years in office. In particular, he repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of parliamentary law over general law, and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers. Resigning his government office in 2016, Montesquieu moved to Los Santos with his family to expand his government experience on an international level, establishing further connections in the State. He currently serves as the 1st Attorney General after a complete overhaul of the State's Government system. The family aims to build the State's first Federal Bank and a family winery. Education: (a) College of Juilly (LL.B.), University of Oxford (LL.M.) (b) S.J.D in Law, École Normale Superieure (ENS, Paris). Career: 15th Minister of Justice (Ministre de la Justice) (1997-2016) Associate Justice / Chief Justice (2017-2018) 1st Attorney General (2018-) Family: Brother(s): Jacques de Montesquieu (age 35) Wife: Vivienne de Montesquieu (age 43) Children: François (age 25), Sébastien (23), Léon (22), Pierre (age 21), Marie (age 20), Camille (age 19), Jacques (age 17). HOUSE of MONTESQUIEU The Montesquieus are a prominent political, legal and banking family, from French origin, that established political, banking and financial systems throughout Europe by the 18th century, moving to Los Santos, San Andreas in the late 20th century in hopes of establishing and dominating those sectors in a city riddled with criminal and gang activities. The Montesquieu dynasty had its genesis during the 17th century when François-Xavier de Montesquieu founded a banking business and a conservative political institution in his native country. Over time and with the help of François’ children, the family business expanded throughout several European countries, later controlling the world’s largest banks and political institutions. The Montesquieus story began with the humble beginnings of its founder, François-Xavier de Montesquieu. Born in 1750, François was raised in a Jewish neighbourhood in Bordeaux, France. As a child, he lived in a full house with about 30 other family members. François learned about the business and political world at an early age—his father, Bertrand de Montesquieu, traded coins, silk and other commodities for a living. One of Bertrand's clients was the King Louis XV of France. François became an orphan at the age of twelve following the death of his mother. His father had died a natural death the year before. He decided to take on an apprenticeship with a banking firm in Paris, France shortly after turning fourteen. During his time there, he learned the ins and outs of banking, business politics, foreign trade and later national and international politics. François-Xavier de Montesquieu, along with his brothers, continued the commodities and money trading business that their father started — including selling rare coins to King Louis XV of France, who eventually became the European continent's richest man. Soon he was providing other banking and later political services to Louis XV and a number of other nobles, and by 1770, François was given the title "Crown Agent" which was heavily politicised (this might be a cause to why Henri eventually rises to power in the French Government in the late 1990s as the first Jewish politician to become the longest-serving Minister of Justice - it is up to you to decide how he possibly rose to power, this is just a possibility). By 1778, François married and went on to have seven children – five sons and two daughters. The family wealth has been divided among many descendants and heirs throughout the years. Today, their holdings, which span a number of diverse sectors such as political and civil, financial and business, alongside their wealth falls under the direct hands of François’ latest heir; Henri de Montesquieu. Most family members today are employed by political and financial institutions they have founded or largely invested in. The remarkable success of the family has solely been due to a strong interest in the civil service and the financial sector, being entrepreneurs and smart, effective players in the game of politics and business. François' descendants continue to finance global political, legal and financial operations and contribute to scholarly, humanitarian endeavours. Currently, the Montesquieu family is focused on establishing the Federal Reserve Bank of Los Santos, which aims to stimulate the city’s economic climate and create a stable, rich and flourishing city, providing a fair financial system to all its inhabitants. They also aim to work with other agencies around the state to help establish a functional and effective criminal and civil justice system. The family motto is: Imperium, Iustitiae, Intellectus, meaning "Power, Justice, Intellect."
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